Details of the 3 evaluated UE
1. Cell Biology
- chemical components of the cell, macromolecules
- organization of procaryotic and eucaryotic cell
- animal and plant cell
- cell organelles and their structure
- cell membrane, structure and transports
- endocytosis, exocytosis
- cellular respiration
- cell nucleus, nucleolus, euchromatin, - heterochromatin
- DNA structure, replication
- cell cycle
- cell division, mitosis, meiosis
2. Reproduction and development
- meiosis and differentiation of germ cells
- genotype, phenotype
- alleles, homozygotes, heterozygotes
- Mendelian genetics and types of inheritance
- monohybrid cross
- multiple alleles
- dyhibrid cross
- X linked inheritance
- linkage, chromosome map
- sex determination
- the genetic code, transcription and translation
- genetics of procaryotic cell – - procaryotic chromosome, plasmids
- recombinant DNA, biotechnology
4. Human organism – anatomy and physiology
- circulatory system, heart
- blood, blood groups, transfusion
- respiratory system
- immune system
- musculoskeletal system
- digestive system, exocrine glands, enzymesw
- endocrine glands, hormones
- kidney and urinary tract, body fluids
- central nervous system
- sense organs – anatomy and function (eye, ear, nose and tongue)
- regulation of body temperature
- reproductive system, male and female
- chemical and biological evolution
- human evolution
- Darwinian evolution theory
- basic ecological terms – environment, abiotic and biotic components
- human influence on ecosystems, pollution
1. General Chemistry
- The atomic nature of matter; characteristics of matter; structure of the atom, elements, atoms and periodic table; structure and properties of ionic and covalent compounds; bonds in chemistry; fundamental lows of chemistry; composition, chemical equation and stoichiometry; behavior of gases; solutions and colloids; acid, bases and salts; chemical energetics; oxidation and reduction; electrochemistry.
2. Inorganic Chemistry
- Nomenclature of inorganic compounds; trends across the periodic table; some representative groups and families: sulfur, halogen, oxygen, nitrogen family; metals and their compounds; p block elements and their compounds; transition metals andtheir compounds.
3. Organic chemistry and biochemistry
- Isomerism, functional groups, basic reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry, organic nomenclature.
- Nomenclature, properties and reactivity of: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons; halogenoalkanes and halogenoarenes; alcohols, thiols, phenols and ethers; aldehydes and ketones; amines; carboxylic acid and their derivatives; simple
five membered and six membered heterocycles.
- Carbohydrates: linear and cyclic formulae, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides; -- Lipids: classification, composition, properties; Proteins: basic amino acids, peptide bonds; Nucleic acids: composition, nucleotides, base pairing, structure and function.
- Motion in one dimension; position and displacement, velocity and speed, acceleration.
- Equations of kinematics for motion with constant velocity and constant acceleration. Free-fall.
- Motion in two dimensions; projectile motion; uniform circular motion, centripetal acceleration, centripetal force; satellites in circular orbits; apparent weightlessness and artificial gravity; Equations of kinematics and dynamics of motion in two dimensions
- Newton's laws of motion (1st, 2nd, 3rd); the concepts of force and mass; weight and the
gravitational force; Newton's law of universal gravitation;
- Effect of force; impulse of force; moment of force; pressure. The impulse-momentum theorem. The principle of conservation of linear momentum. The effects of forces and torques on motion of rigid objects; lever
- Work and energy; work done by a constant force; work done by variable force spring force; kinetic energy; gravitational potential energy; elastic energy. Conservation of energy; Power.
- Mechanics of liquids; model of "ideal liquid"; pressure in liquid induced by the external force;
Pascal's law and its application on pressure gauges; hydrostatic pressure; Archimedes' law; buoyant force; fluids in motion; the equation of continuity; Bernoulli’s equation.
2. Kinetic Theory of Gases and Thermodinamics
- Measuring temperature; Celsius temperature scale; Kelvin temperature scale; Molecular model of an ideal gas; pressure; temperature and root-mean-square speed; the ideal gas law; translational kinetic energy ; processes under constant temperature, pressure or volume. Work done by an ideal gas. First low of thermodynamics: internal energy, heat, work; specific heat capacity.
3. Mechanical Wave and Acoustics
- Ideal spring; pendulum; simple harmonic motion. - The nature of mechanical waves; quantities of wave motion description: frequencies, period, mplitude; equations of motion; the nature of sound; speed of sound; sound intensity.
4. Electricity and Magnetism
- Charged objects; electric force; Coulomb's law; the electric field; the electric potential energy; the voltage; electric current; electric resistance, Ohm's law and the simple circuit; branched electric circuit; Kirchhoff's laws; serial and parallel assembly of resistors
- Electric power; capacitor: capacity, arrangement of capacitors.
- Magnetic field: the force on a moving charge and a current in a magnetic field (Lorenz and Ampere force).
- Magnetic field produced by current.
- Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction: induced Emf and induced current.
- Electric oscillating circuit.
- Alternating current.
- The nature of electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic spectrum - survey and properties.
- Light as an electromagnetic wave; wave properties: diffraction, interference, polarization (Brewster angle).
- Double slit experiment, diffraction grating.
- Geometric optics: reflection, refraction, total internal reflection. The formation of images by
plane mirrors, converging and diverging lenses. The thin-lens equation. Dispersion of light.
- The wave-particle duality: quantum properties of light; photoelectric phenomenon. Einstein's equation for photoelectric effect. The wave nature of matter: De Broglie wavelength of particle.
6. Atomic and Nuclear Physics
- Structure of an atom: atomic nucleus, electron shell. - Nuclear structure: mass defect of the nucleus, nuclear binding energy.
- Radioactivity: radioactive decay, alfa, beta and gamma particles.
- Nuclear reactions.
- Ability to perform simple numerical calculations related to solution of a given problem; knowledge of basic geometrical formulas; knowledge of basic physical constants.>